Every sport offers equipment that has been specially adapted to offer optimum results for a specific aspect. For cycling, the right bike can make a difference in meeting your riding goals much more efficiently. You first need to decide what your goals are and then choose a bike rather than trying to fit your goals to your bike.
If racing is your goal then you need a bike that embodies that format. Aerobars and wide touring seats will not help you be a better racer if it is a century course. Research the bikes that are being used by competitors and evaluate their unique characteristics against your personal needs.
The most important element in finding a bike that will give you optimum results is proper fit. A few minor tweaks and adjustments such as seat angle or gear ratio are to be expected with any bike, but make sure the frame matches your torso and leg length. There are ways to adjust for these dimensions but it can be difficult and a lot more expensive than simply finding a proper fitting bike in the first place.
There is no universally “right” bike, so research based on your specific riding needs.